why choose aluminium

Changes to the world


The discovery of aluminum

In 1520, the German natural scientist Philippus Aureolus Pa-racelsus opened the new chapter of aluminum with his survey certifying that Alum (aluminum sulfate) is a kind of unknown metal oxide.

 

 

 

In 1754, the German chemist Marggraf, Andreas Sigismund successfully separated the bauxite which was later regarded as a kind of magic substance and called by later generations as “oxide”.

 

 

 

In 1807, the British H.Davy who firstly separated the metal hidden in the Alum, and from then on, aluminum has its own name.

 

 

 

In 1825, the Danish scientist H.C.Oersted extracted the first piece of aluminum.

 

 

 

In 1827, the German chemist Wohler designed the new approach to extract aluminum and finally got an extremely dense aluminum block through various attempts.

 

 

 

In 1884, American student Hall and French student Heroult invented cryolite—aluminum oxide molten salt electrolysis method to produce electrolytic aluminum, which is the start of technology for electrolytic aluminum.

 

 

Aluminum applications

Preliminary stage   

In the mid of 19th century, Napoleon III regarded aluminum as luxuries and used it to make crowns and tableware.

In 1885, people used 100 ounces(2.8KG)of aluminum to cast Washington monument in memory of the first President, George Washington.

At the earlier of 20th century, aluminum was used to produce cable. This application shows the features of aluminum in heat and electricity conducting, recycling and regenerating, and easy processing.

In 1903, the Wright brothers applied aluminum in airplane, which fully displays the features of aluminum in terms of light weight, safety and corrosion resistance.

 

 

 

Metaphase

The first tan all made of aluminum appeared in 1964, which fully displays the aluminum characterized by excellent ductility, recycling, corrosion resistance etc.

In 1990s, with advantages of light weight, recycling and regenerating, and durability, aluminum became the preferred material for electric products to make fashion and extremely thin LED TVs and etc.

In 1994, Audi promoted a deluxe car A8 with the body all covered with aluminum, which completely updated the concept of the design for car body. This application shows the light weight, economic, recycling and regenerating, and fashionable features of aluminum.

In 1997, German Commercial Bank Building used a lot of extruded aluminum brackets, aluminum widely used in the building area, which fully display the features of aluminum of corrosion resistance, high intensity and so on.

At the beginning of 21st century, aluminum was widely used in aerospace field. A large amount of Aluminum can be seen applied in satellites, rockets for exploration, space station and launching ejectors, which fully display the features of aluminum of corrosion resistance , high intensity etc.

 

 

 

Present and future

Aluminum is characterized by high intensity, safety, light weight etc, and applied in construction and vehicles. It can be made into bullet-proof glass.

With features such as corrosion resistance, light weight, good ductility etc, aluminum can be made into electric devices, machinery parts, durable material and biological ceramics (artificial joints and teeth)

Aluminum has properties such as light weight, high intensity etc, and it is widely applied in fields such as home application, industry, transportation, aeroplane, military and national defense.

 

 

A brief history of discovery

The word “Aluminum” is derived from Roman alumen. In 1746, German scientist J.H.Pott used alumen to make aluminum oxide. In 1807, British H.Davy attempted to acquire metal by electrolyzing and melting aluminum oxide. Next year, H.Davy named the desired metal as alumium, later changed to aluminium. Danish scientist H.C.Oersted used potassium amalgam to reduce Aluminum chloride anhydrous, and acquired several milligrams of aluminum in 1825. German scientist F.Wohler acquired a little aluminum through reduction of aluminum oxide in 1827 and French scientist S.C.Deville produced aluminum in 1854 through reduction of NaAlCl4 matching with salt , and established a factory to make helmet, tableware and toys. But the prices of these were expensive, equivalent to gold. In 1886, American Hall and French Heroult put forward cryolite—aluminum oxide molten salt electrolysis method to produce aluminum. In 1888, the first electrolysis aluminum plant was built in Pittsburgh, America. The production of aluminum went into a new stage. In 1956, the capacity of aluminum exceeded copper and ranked the first among nonferrous metals.

 

Aluminum properties

The standard electrode potential(25℃)of aluminum is -1.662 voltage and the electrochemical equivalent of aluminum is 0.3356 gram per ampere. Hour. The main physical properties of aluminum of 99.99% purity are listed as follows: Density (20℃)is 2.70g/cm3;smelting point is 660.1℃;boiling point is 2520℃;average specific heat is(0~100℃)917J/kg•K;melting heat is 10.47kJ/mol;heat of evaporation is 291.4 kJ/mol(estimated value);thermal conductivity(0~100℃)is 238W/(m•K);specific resistance(20℃)is 2.67μΩ/cm。

 

Aluminum resources

Average content of aluminum in the earth is 7.47%, lag behind oxygen and silicon, and rank the third in the world. The industrial reserve of Identified bauxites in the world is about 25 billions, plus prospective reserves, achieving 35 million. Countries with abundant aluminum reserve and capacity are Guinea, Australia, Brazil, Indian etc. Most of the bauxites in these countries are gibbsite with high iron and low silicon which are proper for producing aluminum oxide by using simple Bayer process. The bauxites in China explored are mainly distributed in Henan, Shanxi, Guizhou, Shandong, Guangxi etc. Except for individual regions, most of these areas are diasporite with low iron and high aluminum. China also has abundant alumen quarries. Zhejiang and Anhui have potassium alum which is calculated by million tons. Potassium alum is the raw material to produce aluminum oxide and potash fertilizer. In addition, we have found abundant nepheline resource in Yunnan province.